Ginseng exhibits multiple medicinal properties, including the improvement of immune function and enhancing disease resistance. In this study,
we investigated the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) infection of grass Carp Ovarian (CO) epithelial cells,
in order to provide a baseline framework for future high-efficacy antiviral drug screening investigations. Ginsenoside Rg3 was added to GCRVinfected
CO cells, and cells were cultured at 27°C before cell proliferation was measured by MTT assays. Label-free Real-Time Cellular Analysis
(RTCA) after 72 h of experimentation demonstrated that 100 μg/mL ginsenoside Rg3 treatment had the highest inhibitory effect on GCRV (among
1,10,100μg/mL treatments). We then measured the capacity for cellular antioxidant ability. Cells treated with 1,10,100μg/mL ginsenosideRg3
exhibited increases in Total Antioxidant Capacity activity relative to controls, respectively. Furthermore, Antioxidant assay and Reverse Transcript
Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that ginsenoside Rg3 were efficient to restrain the replication of GCRV in CO cells.
Expression analysis of immune-related genes via RT-qPCR showed that treatment with ginsenosideRg3 promoted expression of IRF-3 and IRF-7
increases, respectively. Moreover, expression of IFN-1 was induced, which then inhibition the expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α).
In conclusion, we demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 promotes CO cell proliferation, inhibits GCRV activity, promotes CO cell immune activities,
and thereby enhances the resistance of CO to GCRV infection.
Title : Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits grass carp reovirus replication in grass carp ovarian epithelial cells
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Objective: To modify both workflow and culture reading schedules to improve Turn-Around-Time (TAT) to a final urine culture report.
Methods: We incorporated Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry Technology (MALDI-TOF-MS) into the workflow of the culture workups for rapid identification (ID). We also modified our culture reading schedules to include a split shift reading in addition to our conventional first shift culture reading schedule.
Results: Retrospective pre-workflow (September-November 2013) and post-workflow (April, May, October 2014) modification turn-around-times were compared for sixteen different species of commonly isolated urine pathogens. A statistically significant (p-value <0.05) improvement in average TAT was noted for all species examined. Furthermore, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) TAT, and release of no growth culture TAT, improved significantly. The average pre-algorithm Length of Stay (LOS) was 5.345 days while the average post-algorithm LOS was 4.761 days (P=0.0005), when >10 days LOS cases were excluded.
Conclusion: Converting from conventional identification methods to MALDI-TOF-MS, in conjunction with workflow modifications such as a second culture reading time, notably improved urine culture TAT for ID and AST, as well as for release of no-growth cultures. The improved TAT in the laboratory translated to a statistically significant improvement in inpatient LOS.
Keywords : MALDI-TOF; Urine Culture; Work Flow
Author : Amity L. Roberts
Title : Workflow Modifications and Addition of MALDI-TOF-MS Technology Improved Turn-Around-Time to Identification of Common Urine Pathogens