The study sought to identify and compare characteristics of cut
marks produced by an experienced swordsman wielding a traditionally
made and polished katana (using a slicing action) with those produced
by an inexperienced swordsman (using a hacking action) on three
different bone types (rib, flat, long), as well as to identify and compare
striations in kerf walls produced by the different sharpening methods.
Two different pig carcasses were struck (one carcass for each weapon
type) and the resulting cut marks (experienced swordsman n=27;
inexperienced n=32) were assessed and compared. The presence or
absence of each of seven morphological characteristics were identified
for each cut and recorded. A Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis
was undertaken on all kerf walls using Mikrosil negative casts. The
morphological characteristics of striations were compared clinically and
statistically between the two weapon types.
Micro- curvature is more often present in cuts produced by an
inexperienced swordsman compared to an experienced swordsman for
the rib bones (70% and 27% respectively, p=0.09). For flat bones, flaking
and feathering were identified only in cuts made by an inexperienced
swordsman. For long bones, unilateral flaking was present in 50% of
cuts produced by an inexperienced swordsman compared with only
10% of cuts made by an experienced swordsman (p=0.02) while scoop
defect was present in 25% of cuts made by an inexperienced swordsman
and absent in all cuts of experienced swordsman (p=0.27). Striations
produced by the traditionally polished/sharpened katana exhibited a
smooth parallel step like pattern with a second smaller striation pattern
on the top located along the step edge. Those produced by the display
katana (factory machine sharpened) exhibited rough and mainly parallel
striations with sharp edges.
The morphological diagnostic traits of katana cut marks and
whether the cut marks were produced by a slicing or hacking action
(experienced or inexperienced swordsman) or by a weapon sharpening
method (traditional or factory) on different bone types will be of value
to researchers in forensics and those investigating contemporary crime
and war crimes.
Title : Detecting the Experience of a Swordsman and Sharpening Methods based on Bone Cut Marks: A Pilot Study
Volume/Issue : 1;1
Page No :
Intimate partner violence threatens the health and safety of women
worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that it
affects one third of women at some point in their lives and declared
domestic violence an international priority for health services.
Aim: Evaluate the data published by official organizations in Spain
regarding to domestic violence and intimate partner violence.
Methods: The data published in Spain by National Institute of
Statistics have been consulted. Recorded data on domestic violence and
IPV are published every year.
Results: the results cover matters (with precautionary measures
taken) entered in the register during the year of reference (2014-2016).
From 2015, information on final sentences handed down in the year
of reference and on victims and accused, as well as on offenses and
precautionary measures, has also been published.
Some studies on the medical and psychological repercussions of
IPV are reported and show the health effects on affected people.
The data in our country indicate that complaints due to IPV are
much greater than those of domestic violence. There has been a change
in the situation of the IPV with a decrease in the number of victims
and complaints, and the introduction of procedures instituted for this
reason. The number of summary offenses has decreased as a result of
their repeal, while many of them are now considered crimes. Even
so, this decrease is slight compared to the numerous measures and
detection and prevention policies established in Spain to prevent them.
Likewise, mortality due to intimate partner violence is also dropping
slowly, although a rise has been observed in some years.
A community effort is required to address the causes of intimate
partner violence and domestic violence and create viable solutions that
will improve the situation.
Title : Intimate Partner Violence in Spain: Medical and Legal Aspects
Volume/Issue : 1;1
Page No :
Vitreous humor is understood to be bacterial free and not prone to
contamination even at advanced stage of putrefaction. The research was
tailored to validate the bacterial status of the vitreous and the attendant
effect of carbon monoxide on bacterial population in the vitreous. In this
study, thirty six (36) rabbits of same sex and age were divided into two
phases of acute and chronic categories. The acute category was further
divided into three groups of six rabbit each (controls, disguised death
and carbon monoxide death groups). However, the chronic category
constituted four groups of six rabbit each (controls, 10th day, 20th day
and 30th day groups). Vitreous humor were extracted from the eyes of
rabbits in all the study groups and cultured on varieties of agars for
the purpose of assessing the possibility of bacterial growth. The results
showed no bacterial growth in all the categories and groups, except for
the positive controls. The study has further affirmed vitreous humor to
be bacterial free and sterile even with carbon monoxide poisoning and
Keywords : Microbial; Vitreous humour; Forensic science; Disguised Death (DD); Carbon Monoxide Death (CD)
Author : Agoro ES
Title : The Forensic Application of Microbiological Quality of the Vitreous Humor on the Investigation of Acute and Chronic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning