GSL Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology

Current Issues.

Volume 1  Issue 1
   Short Communication         Month : 08 (2017)

From Mussel Watch Monitoring to Health Risk Assessment: A Public Health Concern

  Chee Kong Yap

In this review paper, the International Mussel Watch Program (IMWP) in the monitoring of toxic chemicals such as heavy metals in the coastal waters is highlighted. Briefly, the IMWP is initiated by Goldberg (1975) with an aim to monitor the chemical contaminants in the coastal waters. The use of Mussel Watch approach for the monitoring of chemical pollutants in the coastal waters has been conducted in many countries around the world such as USA (Apeti et al., 2010; Edwards et al., 2014) [1,2] Turkey (Belivermis et al.¸ 2016) [3], China (Fung et al., 2004) [4], India (Sasikumar et al., 2006) [5], Hong Kong (Fang et al., 2008) [6], Croatia (Bogdanovic et al., 2014) [7], South-east England (Bray et al., 2015) [8], Libya (Galgani et al., 2014) [9] and Philippines (Dumalagan et al., 2010) [10]. The aim of this review paper is to discuss the significance of Human Health Risk Assessments (HHRA) of chemical pollutants from the Mussel Watch monitoring data
   Research Article         Month : 08 (2017)

What do Physicians do with their Public Health Degrees?

  Jessica L Jones

Introduction: The reasons physicians decide to pursue formal training in Public Health (PH) are varied and often uniquely personal. The Institute of Medicine has emphasized the importance of training medical providers in PH. Few studies have examined the impact of obtaining a public health degree on physician careers. The purpose of this investigation is to identify reasons physicians pursue a PH degree. Methods: This qualitative key informant interview study (2016?2017) included individuals from Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) group on Public Health and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) with a medical degree and a PH degree. Results: After interviewing 15 individuals (participation rate 42%), we analyzed the data to identify patterns in behaviors and attitudes. We found that positive mentors are very influential. A prominent reason of attaining a PH degree was to expanded perspective on health care.
   Proceeding         Month : 08 (2017)

Meritocracy to Mediocracy: Shifting the Focus of French Laboratory Medicine Appointments

  Joseph Watine

In France nowadays, public managers are free to promote almost whoever they like, or love. Though at times unscrupulous managers may be hindered by the fact that, before they can be promoted, their friends, or relatives, or serfs, have to pass examinations, and obtain diplomas, the “cleverest” public managers somehow even manage to find ways around that problem
Volume 2  Issue 1
   Short Communication         Month : 02 (2018)

Long Institutions for Elderly Staying (Ilpi) in Brazilian Reality: Short Communication

  Janilson Avelino da Silva

Long-term care institutions for the elderly, older than 60 years, operate in Brazil as spaces of social support for the elderly who have nowhere to live, in conditions of freedom, dignity and citizenship. Shelters should operate in accordance with specific standards established by regulatory agencies responsible for population health
   Research Article         Month : 02 (2018)

Pathophysiological and Epidemiological Aspects of Herpes Zoster: A Short Review

  Georgia Kyriakou

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two distinct diseases, varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella represents the primary form of VZV infection which usually occurs among children. Herpes Zoster (HZ) is caused by endogenous reactivation of latent VZV, and is mainly observed in the elderly and immune compromised individuals. It is characterized by prodromal pain along one or more skin dermatomes and grouped herpetic form vesicles on an erythematous base. The lack of VZV-specific immune surveillance, abnormalities of host cellular events-induced silencing of VZV gene expression, immune senescence and immune suppression have been implicated in HZ pathogenesis. The HZ incidence increases with advancing age and HZ recurrence is more frequently observed in immune compromised individuals compared to immune competent persons. The zoster vaccine has been shown to reduce the HZ incidence and postherpetic neuralgia by exogenous boosting of VZV-specific immunity
   Research Article         Month : 02 (2018)

Life Expectancy does not Depend on Classical Ecological Variables: Stochastic and Non-stochastic Analysis

  Umberto Cornelli

The Life Expectancy (LE) in 191 countries was compared on the base of 17 demographic and economic variables. Two approaches were followed: the stochastic and non-stochastic analysis. The first consisted of simple correlation coefficients followed by the, Main Component, Factorial and finally Segmentation Analysis. The second was the Artificial Neuronal Network Analysis using the Auto Contractive Map (Auto-CM). The results of the two approaches were very similar and all excluded at least 10 out the 17 variables. The surface covered by Forests, the Kmq2 of forests, the ratio of the Domestic Gross Profit (GDP) with education, the number of hospital beds, the particulate matter, the population and the population density were not considered determinant. What were emerging as directly correlated with LE were internet, GDPs (GDP/inhab and GDP 2 and GDP 3 related respectively to the advance industry and economy), urban concentration, cars and cellphones. An inverse correlation was found with GDP 1 (related to agriculture, livestock, fishing) and unemployment rate. The last was detected by the ANN only. The conclusion is that LE in the world is far from the variables typically bound to the environment and more linked to the economic variables. One sentence summary: The life expectancy measured with stochastic and non stochastic analysis excludes the correlation with the common ecological variables.
Volume 3  Issue 1
   Research Article         Month : 10 (2019)

Thirteen New Universal Design Public Health Measures-Worth Knowing and Doing to Live Longer

  C Samuel A Nigro

Simple inexpensive clinical health improving procedures, Universal Designs, are offered which should be promoted by public health organizations everywhere. These procedures are the result of discovering the cure for the author’s severe laryngospasm disorder. Discovering the SAM prompted reflections on improving simple valuable self-care for all. All techniques are described and recommended for improving health care and comfortable living for everyone everywhere old enough to follow directions. They have to be daily practiced and made routine. Following these twelve procedures should improve everyone’s health. They should be universally understood and practiced. Change your routines and stay healthy
   Research Article         Month : 10 (2019)

Bacteriological and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Isolated Organisms of Post-Caesarean Suppuration in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Laquintinie Hospital, Douala, Cameroon

  Essome H

Introduction: The objective of our study was to identify the bacteria associated with the post-Caesarean surgical site infection, and their antibiotic resistance profile, in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Laquintinie Hospital in Douala. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study on the removal of post-caesarean section suppuration at Laquintinie Hospital in Douala. After swabbing the superficial pus and syringe puncture for the deepest pus, the samples were sown on culture media allowing the growth of most of the germs involved in this type of infection. Identification was made using ApiTM galleries (BioMerieux, France), and antibiotic resistance using the Mueller Hinton agar plate method. Results: We had 260 cases of caesareans during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.6 years, the Mean Hospital Stay (MHS) was 9.1 ± 0.4 days. The prevalence of infection was 28.8%, considered to be associated with care in most of cases. The bacteria responsible for these infections were mostly Gram-positive cocci (45%), followed by enterobacteria (32%), and non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (23%). Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant species with 33% of cases, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 11%. The bacteria encountered were multi-resistant to the different families of antibiotics tested, with a resistance level varying between 92 and 98% with respect to betalactamines, including for imipenem (47% of resistant strains). Isolated organisms were resistant to aminoglycosides, namely gentamycin and neltimicin at 51.5% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Post-caesarean infection is a concern at the Maternity of Laquintinie Hospital. Reinforcement of hygiene measures, knowledge of local bacterial ecology and surveillance of antibiotic resistance are necessary to improve the management of these infections
   Short Communication         Month : 10 (2019)

The Epidemiology of Systemic Sarcoidosis in Eastern Hertfordshire, UK

  Desmond P Kidd

Background: Sarcoidosis is an uncommon multi-system disease characterised by the development of granulomatous inflammation within affected tissues. The purpose of this study was firstly to redefine the incidence of sarcoidosis within a UK population and secondly to identify the potential cost to the National Health Service of provision of optimal treatment for all manifestations of the disease. Methods: A population of 51566 people living in the eastern Hertfordshire region of the UK was studied prospectively over a three year period in a general practice setting. Results: Fifteen new cases were identified of whom half showed multi-system disease at onset. The annualised incidence of the disease in this population was 9.69x105. Conclusion: The results show that the prevalence of systemic sarcoidosis in a representative population of the UK is the same as that in other countries. The results have been used to estimate the annual cost of provision of biological therapies in the disease in the UK.
Volume 4  Issue 1
   Research Article         Month : 03 (2020)

Exercise and Personal Income Level are Independently Associated with Health- Related Quality of Life in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Stable Angina

  Laixin Zhou

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors associated with HRQL in patients with newly diagnosed stable angina. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 342 consecutive outpatients with newly diagnosed stable angina. Physical and mental HRQL were evaluated via the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Multiple stepwise regression was performed to determine the factors associated with HRQL. Results: Patients who were older, were females, did not exercise, and had lower educational levels, lower monthly incomes, smoking/drinking habits, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipemia showed low physical HRQL scores, while those who were older with lower educational levels and monthly incomes showed low mental HRQL scores. The results of multiple stepwise regression showed that physical and mental HRQL were positively correlated with exercise and monthly income and negatively associated with age. Sleep quality and drinking were negatively associated with physical, but not mental, HRQL. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that exercise and personal income level, as modifiable factors, were positively associated with both physical and mental HRQL. These findings could have implications for clinical suggestions and strategies to improve HRQL in patients with stable angina
   Short Communication         Month : 03 (2020)

Sarcoglycanopathies: A Novel Predictive Approach

  Davide Frumento

Progressive Muscular Dystrophies (PMDs) are a heterogeneous family of neuromuscular diseases. Although they are considered as a rare diseases group, their severity and relatively high prevalence make them a suitable target for that kind of scientific research whose target is to give to the community a better quality of life. With this in mind, it is reasonable to think that a reliable predictive model is needed. Alas, since both PMDs subtypes prevalence and incidence among general population do not show significant statistical variations, it is not possible to base a predictive model on these data. However, the aim of this paper is to elaborate a novel approach in order to crack the code of PMDs unpredictability.
Volume 4  Issue 4
   Research Article         Month : 12 (2023)

Body Burden of Persistent Organic Pollutants Were Negatively Associated with Adiponectin and Positively Associated with Glucose Intolerance Among Inuit in Canada

  Zienczuk N

Background: Persistent organic pollutants have been identified as potential risk factors for the development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes. Objectives: We investigated the cross-sectional association between serum concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and markers of diabetes risk among non-diabetic Inuit adults in northern Canada using data collected by the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007- 2008) in Canada. Methods: A total of 2595 Inuit aged over 18 living in northern Canada participated in the Inuit Health Survey. Out of which, 792 non-diabetic participants completed the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and were included in this study. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between lipid-standardized serum concentrations of POPs and glucose intolerance. Linear regression was used to determine the association between serum POPs and adiponectin. All models were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and smoking status. Analyses were conducted using STATA version 11.0 and a P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean concentrations of all POPs included in the analyses were 2-fold higher in glucose intolerant versus normoglycemic participants (P<0.001). An increased odds for glucose intolerance was observed among participants with high concentrations of trans-nonachlor (OR=2.23; 95%CI=1.09,4.56), toxaphene Parlar50 (OR=2.03 95%CI=1.01, 4.06), PCB118 (OR=2.75; 95%CI=1.27; 5.98), and PCB138 (OR=2.14; 95%CI=1.00; 4.55). All POPs included in the analyses were significantly and negatively associated with adiponectin