From Mussel Watch Monitoring to Health Risk Assessment: A Public Health ConcernAuthor: Chee Kong Yap
In this review paper, the International Mussel Watch Program (IMWP) in the monitoring of toxic chemicals such as heavy metals in the coastal waters is highlighted. Briefly, the IMWP is initiated by Goldberg (1975) with an aim to monitor the chemical contaminants in the coastal waters. The use of Mussel Watch approach for the monitoring of chemical pollutants in the coastal waters has been conducted in many countries around the world such as USA (Apeti et al., 2010; Edwards et al., 2014) [1,2] Turkey (Belivermis et al.¸ 2016) , China (Fung et al., 2004) , India (Sasikumar et al., 2006) , Hong Kong (Fang et al., 2008) , Croatia (Bogdanovic et al., 2014) , South-east England (Bray et al., 2015) , Libya (Galgani et al., 2014)  and Philippines (Dumalagan et al., 2010) . The aim of this review paper is to discuss the significance of Human Health Risk Assessments (HHRA) of chemical pollutants from the Mussel Watch monitoring data.