Research Article

Identical Geometrical Profile for Both Craters and Arbitrary Long Incisions Produced by CO2 Laser Beams onto Irradiated Biological and Non-biological Samples: The Importance of the Crater's Horizon Acceleration

Author: Franco Canestri

Background Status: In order to forecast with sufficient precision the geometrical profile of a cut obtained via a moving surgical CO2 laser beam emitting in Continuous Wave (CW), it is recommendable to produce a single crater with the same desired safety depth and acceptable superficial damage first. This precaution allows to reduce the risks of starting an uncontrolled cutting process with unfavorable consequences: a single crater allows to test the selected laser set-up (output power, focal length and beam profile) under minimal damaging conditions in a volume with the same structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the cut and where no significant irreversible and permanent large damages can occur. Goals and Objectives: the next logical step is then to select a proper scanning speed of the same laser focal head and modified set-up over the surgical area to treat, which then would allow to produce a cut with the identical safe profile obtained with the single accepted test crater. In more mathematical terms, the incognita to determine is the correct power density distributed over the complete desired cut length which produces the identical geometrical profile of the original test crater. As consequence, the correct “cut – speed” equation must guarantee the production of the original test crater profile all the way from the start to the end of the desired arbitrary incision. Materials and Methods: this Paper presents two separate analytical models and proposes some preliminary experimental results to be considered for both crater pre-testing and cut generation phases obtained via CW - CO2 laser beams during forecasting and pre-simulations of challenging interventions in Operating Room. Conclusion: the experimental evidence of the presence of an acceleration phase during the early crater production process in both biological and non-biological is presented and discussed as well.