Mitochondria Dysfunction and Microglia Activation in Aging: A Mini ReviewAuthor: Tzu-Wei Lin
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and critical in maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment to support neuronal survival. The microglial activation in the CNS can be divided into two opposite types: M1 pro-inflammation and M2 anti-inflammation phenotypes. Animal study suggests that during aging M1 microglia increase, accompanied by a decrease in M2 microglia. Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), produced by mitochondria, are known as mediators of M1 microglialactivation. This review firstly discusses the changes in microglia phenotype and mitochondria function during aging. Secondly, it summarizes the current researches that report the association between the dysfunction of microglial mitochondria and alteration of microglial immune responses.